By Edward Erwin

More than a century has handed for the reason that Sigmund Freud all started his groundbreaking paintings in psychoanalysis but there isn't any consensus approximately his legacy; as a substitute there's power war of words not just approximately Freud's attractiveness and position in heritage yet concerning the right criteria to exploit in comparing his idea and therapy.

This booklet develops epistemological criteria for Freudian psychology and gives a finished overview of, and doubtless ultimate, verdict on Freud's conception and remedy. in contrast to the other review released up to now, it incorporates a systematic dialogue of either the Freudian experimental and non-experimental facts and the right kind criteria for analyzing the evidence.

Part I considers the view that Freud's thought might be judged through unique evidential criteria deemed applicable for judging hypotheses of common sense psychology. Edward Erwin argues in contrast view and for the employment of criteria acceptable to causal hypotheses of either the usual and social sciences. Erwin additionally addresses different concerns approximately criteria resembling the necessity for experimental facts, using placebo controls, the correct targets of psychotherapy, and using meta-analysis in interpreting end result data.

The criteria constructed partially I of the e-book are utilized in half II in comparing the easiest to be had Freudian evidence.

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Rather, there is simply a difference in what the empirical evidence shows as to what rival hypotheses need to be ruled out in the two cases. This point is relevant to Hopkins’s contention (1988, 37) that psychoanalytic theory is an extension of commonsense psychology. In some respects, this is true. For example, both appeal to motives in explaining behavior. Yet experimental evidence might be needed to conªrm certain Freudian causal claims and not certain commonsense causal claims, not because fundamentally different epistemic standards apply but because empirical evidence mandates that conªrmation of Freudian hypotheses be ex- 41 Non-Natural Science Standards perimental.

Kettner’s premises fail to guarantee that it is reasonable to believe that any particular one was causally relevant. What Kettner may mean, however, is that the features could plausibly be said to derive from M (see Kettner, 1991, 165, his discussion of the role of background conditions in sifting out unreasonably “abduced” explanations). On this second interpretation, the schema is trivial. Suppose that we ªrst establish that the teacher’s unassertiveness is unlikely if it is not caused by her unconscious identiªcation with her pupils and that it 40 Chapter 1 is reasonable to think that it was so caused; then, of course, the hypothesis that this factor was causally relevant is reasonable.

It might not be necessary to meet this standard, in contrast, in conªrming the efªcacy of certain surgical procedures when expectations of cure are known to be causally impotent. These cases do not show that different fundamental epistemic standards are to be used in judging the effects of drugs and surgery. Rather, there is simply a difference in what the empirical evidence shows as to what rival hypotheses need to be ruled out in the two cases. This point is relevant to Hopkins’s contention (1988, 37) that psychoanalytic theory is an extension of commonsense psychology.

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