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Additional resources for A First Course on Aerodynamics
The Mach number of a flow is defined using ‘a’ as follows where ‘V’ is the velocity of the gas. When M<1 it is subsonic flow, when M=1 it is sonic flow and when M>1 it is supersonic flow respectively. Consider a point P in a flow field. Let us suppose that a fluid element instantaneously crosses this point with velocity V. Its Mach number, pressure and temperature are M, p and T respectively. , without heat addition or removal) slowed down to M=1 (if it was originally traveling at supersonic Mach number) or speeded up to M=1 (if it was originally traveling at subsonic Mach number).
This affects the forces and moments acting on the body and consequently its stability. At high temperatures the flow becomes chemically reacting, therefore altering its thermodynamic characteristics. The calorically perfect gas assumption which is widely used for supersonic flow breaks down due to the dependence of specific heats ( c p and c v ) on both pressure and temperature in hypersonic condition. Also, complex chemical reactions occur at the body surface if it is coated with an ablative layer for cooling purposes.
A supercritical airfoil has a) higher wave drag b) higher critical Reynolds number c) higher critical Mach number d) higher drag divergence Mach number 8. 7 could be calculated using a) Bernoulli’s theorem b) Area rule c) Prandtl-Glauert rule d) none of the above 9.